Medical Devices are used in the healthcare for the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring or treatment of illness or disability. The Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) is responsible for the registration and approvals of medical devices in Egypt through the Drug Policy and Planning Center (DPPC) and the Central Administration of Pharmaceutical Affairs (CAPA) which also regulates the importation and manufacture of medical devices.
Counterfeit is defined by the Cambridge Dictionary as products made to look like the original of something, usually for dishonest or illegal purposes or something copied exactly in order to make someone believe that the copy is the original.
Recently, the Egyptian media has faced challenges directed to its freedom and independence as a result of the vague legislations and the regulatory framework that lacks the definition and determination of the public and private media, where such regulatory framework is considered as a pressure on the Egyptian media.
The Egyptian Parliament approved extending the Tax Dispute Resolution Law No.79 of the year 2016 for the upcoming two years. Such legislation was one of the most critical and important demands in the tax community,where it was issued to ease the process of Tax Dispute Resolution between the Financier and the Egyptian Tax Authority and to accelerate the lengthy tax dispute process, removing cases from court and allowing settlement by committees headed by experts who do not work for the Tax Authority.
Commercial Agency Contract is considered to be one of the most common contracts in the commercial area. Such contracts are governed in Egypt by Law No. 120 of the year 1982 (and the Ministry of Economy’s Decision No. 342 of 1982).
The new investment law in Egypt laid down the basic conditions for the allocation of lands to investors with obliging the concerned authorities (concerned ministries) to provide lands for investment and to notify the General Authority for Investment to include these lands in the investment map. The investment map shall involve the specification of the nature, system and conditions of the investment, as well as its geographic regions and sectors. It shall also specify the real state-owned properties or other public legal persons designated for investment, and the system and manner of disposition thereof according to the type of investment system.
Nowadays, foreign investment in Egypt is becoming easier, and is being facilitated by the new Investment Law No.72 of the year 2017(hereinafter referred to as the Investment Law) offers guarantees, simpler procedures, as well as incentives that include tax breaks and trims customs duties.
Awarding Public contracts in Egypt is not specified by a certain law, nevertheless, the Egyptian Constitution has set a general principal that it is prohibited to dispose any of the State’s public property. However, disposing of the State’s private property, and public utility concessions are allowed in accordance with the laws promulgated in this regard. The main laws regulating the award of public contracts are:
Egypt used to govern technology crimes and cybercrimes by some provisions in Civil and Criminal laws. Finally, a new Law No. 175 of the year 2018 regarding anti-cyber and information technology crimes was published on Saturday 18/8/2018 by the official Egyptian Gazette following its ratification.
Egypt’s government has completed the amendment of the new Labor Law including the Laws of Labor and Trade Union Organizations, in a way consistent with the current economic conditions of the country and its social reflections on all workers sectors as the Egyptian workers are considered the cause behind the real development, which will build the homeland and work on its prosperity; such workers bear the economic decisions issued in 2016, where the government ensured that such Laws will have a final and effective solutions for the workers issues in Egypt especially those between the employer and the employees.
The Confidentiality might be stated in an independent Agreement called “Confidentiality Agreement” and it could be stated in certain Clauses in different agreements or contracts such as an employment contract. The Confidentiality Agreements or Clauses are essential in any contractual relationship, as it plays an important role in assuring the maintenance of the secrecy and confidentiality regarding all the information disclosed among all the involved Parties of the Agreement. It is a win-win situation for both Parties, as it protects both Parties and builds trust between Parties of the agreement.
The VAS services are services that are based on the content or format of the information that has changed in the content or body of the information it adds value to or provides integration between it and other services from Operational and/or administrative aspects, or those services that involve user interaction with stored information data.
Tourism in Egypt is flourishing, as it became a destination for many tourists due to its many attractions especially the peculiarity of its food. However, in some cases tourists suffer from diseases, infections or food poisoning due to the failure of hotels and touristic sites to observe the food and beverage hygiene, which lead tourists to the court in order to claim for compensation.
Changing the company’s legal form is mainly regulated by the Companies Act No. 159 of the year 1981 and its Executive Regulations; in particular Article No. 136 of the Companies Act and Article No. 299 of its Executive Regulations.
Franchise is a practice of the right to run a Company’s business system and brand for a certain period of time. Therefore, when concluding franchise agreements, parties should be aware of “deal breakers” provisions such as liquidated damages clauses, insufficient start-up support, and mandatory arbitration clauses. Franchisors provide many advantages for ambitious Franchisees to start a business. However, the benefits are not for everyone.
A letter of guarantee is a type of a contract issued by a bank on behalf of a customer who has entered into a contract to purchase goods from a supplier and promises to meet any financial obligations to the supplier in the event of the default. The main purpose of this product is to guarantee payment to the beneficiary regardless of any objection or contestation from any other party.
Egypt after 2011 started to focus mainly on energy and renewable energy sectors as an integral part of the main projects in the sustainable development plan 2030. Egypt recently issued The Electricity Law No. 87 of the year 2015, and its Executive Regulation in 2016 (Ministerial Decree No. 230 of year 2016) and Renewable Energy Law No. 203 of the year 2014.
The Documentary Credit is an essential way for the execution of import & export trade operations, thus it has been requisite for the trade relations which has been defined by Article 341 of the Egyptian Commercial Law No.17 of the year 1999 which stipulates that: ‘Documentary credit is an Agreement by virtue of which the bank undertakes to open a credit upon the request of one of his clients (called ‘the remitter’) in favor of another person (called ‘the beneficiary’ guaranteed by documents representing the shipped goods or goods prepared for shipment’. Such documentary credit contract is separate from the contract because of which the credit was opened. And the bank shall remain alien to that contract. In case there is no special provision prescribed herein, the ICC Uniform Customs and Practices for Document Credits issued from the International Chamber Of Commerce shall apply.
The Transfer of Technology Contract is one of the contracts which are included in the Egyptian Commercial Law No. 17/1999, due to the new era of significant expansion in the field of technology contracts and the legal issues that face the transfer of technology processes at the international level as a result of the conflict of interests between the parties of these processes.